Routine versus selective intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Purchase on

$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access



Routine use of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a matter of debate.


Data from 2,130 consecutive LCs and patients’ follow-up during 9 years were collected and analyzed. During the first 4 years of the study, 800 patients underwent LC, and IOC was performed selectively (SIOC). Thereafter, 1,330 patients underwent LC, and IOC was routinely attempted (RIOC) for all.


In the IOC group, 159 patients met the criteria for SIOC, which was completed successfully in 141 cases (success rate, 88.6%). Bile duct calculi were found in nine patients. All other patients with no criteria or failed SIOC were followed, and in nine patients retained stones were documented. Thus, the incidence of ductal stones was 1.1% and sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) for the detection of ductal stones were 50, 100, 98.6, and 100%, respectively. In the RIOC group, IOC was routinely attempted in 1,330 patients and was successful in 1,133 (success rate, 90.9%; p = 0.015). Bile duct stones were detected in 37 patients (including 14 asymptomatic stones). In two cases, IOC failed to reveal ductal stones (false negative). There was no false-positive IOC. Therefore, with RIOC policy, the incidence of ductal stones, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV were 3.3, 97.4, 100, 99.8, and 100%, respectively (significantly higher for success rate, incidence, sensitivity, and NPV; p < 0.05). Abnormal IOC findings were also significantly higher in the RIOC group. Common bile duct injury occurred only in the SIOC group [two cases of all 2,130 LCs (0.09%)].


RIOC during LC is a safe, accurate, quick, and cost-effective method for the detection of bile duct anatomy and stones. A highly disciplined performance of RIOC can minimize potentially debilitating and hazardous complications of bile duct injury.