, Volume 20, Issue 9, pp 1341-1347
Date: 13 May 2006

Intrathoracoscopic localization techniques

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Several techniques for localizing pulmonary nodules have been described, but the advantages and disadvantages of each method remain unclear. We reviewed ultrasound, endofinger, finger palpation and wait and watch, radioguided, vital dye, fluoroscopic, agar marking, and needle wire methods for localizing pulmonary nodules.


Original, peer-reviewed, and full-length articles in English were searched with PubMed and ISI Web of Sciences. Case reports and case series with less than 10 patients were excluded.


All localization techniques showed good reliability, but some carry a high rate of major or minor complications and drawbacks.


No ideal localization technique is available; thus, the choice still depends on surgeon’s preference and local availability of both specialists and instruments.