Ergonomics and human factors in endoscopic surgery: a comparison of manual vs telerobotic simulation systems

  • E. C. Lee
  • A. Rafiq
  • R. Merrell
  • R. Ackerman
  • J. T. Dennerlein
Original article

DOI: 10.1007/s00464-004-8213-6

Cite this article as:
Lee, E.C., Rafiq, A., Merrell, R. et al. Surg Endosc (2005) 19: 1064. doi:10.1007/s00464-004-8213-6

Abstract

Background

Minimally invasive surgical techniques expose surgeons to a variety of occupational hazards that may promote musculoskeletal disorders. Telerobotic systems for minimally invasive surgery may help to reduce these stressors. The objective of this study was to compare manual and telerobotic endoscopic surgery in terms of postural and mental stress.

Methods

Thirteen participants with no experience as primary surgeons in endoscopic surgery performed a set of simulated surgical tasks using two different techniques — a telerobotic master — slave system and a manual endoscopic surgery system. The tasks consisted of passing a soft spherical object through a series of parallel rings, suturing along a line 5 -cm long, running a 32-in ribbon, and cannulation. The Job Strain Index (JSI) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) were used to quantify upper extremity exposure to postural and force risk factors. Task duration was quantified in seconds. A questionnaire provided measures of the participants' intuitiveness and mental stress.

Results

The JSI and RULA scores for all four tasks were significantly lower for the telerobotic technique than for the manual one. Task duration was significantly longer for telerobotic than for manual tasks. Participants reported that the telerobotic technique was as intuitive as, and no more stressful than, the manual technique.

Conclusions

Given identical tasks, the time to completion is longer using the telerobotic technique than its manual counterpart. For the given simulated tasks in the laboratory setting, the better scores for the upper extremity postural analysis indicate that telerobotic surgery provides a more comfortable environment for the surgeon without any additional mental stress.

Keywords

Endoscopic techniques Robotics Ergonomics Minimally invasive surgery 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. C. Lee
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. Rafiq
    • 2
  • R. Merrell
    • 2
  • R. Ackerman
    • 1
  • J. T. Dennerlein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental HealthHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryMedical Informatics and Technology Applications Consortium (MITAC), NASA Research Partnership, Virginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  3. 3.Air Force Institute of TechnologyUS Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force BaseUSA