, Volume 17, Issue 12, pp 1943-1950
Date: 28 Oct 2003

Virtual reality surgical laparoscopic simulators

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In the past 10 years, minimal access surgery (MAS) has replaced open surgery for a variety of procedures. In general surgery, procedures such as cholecystectomy, antireflux surgery, bariatric surgery, colon surgery, and knee and shoulder surgery are performed laparoscopically, and laparoscopy is used increasingly for surgical procedures fields of gynecology, cardiac surgery, and urology [14]. MAS imposes specific strains on the surgeon requiring specific psychomotor abilities and skills due to the videoscopic surgical interface. Conventional teaching methods for open surgery, such as the classical apprenticeship with hands-on theater experience, do not emphasize the acquisition of such skills. Furthermore, when performing endoscopic surgery, surgeons in training cannot easily mimic their mentor’s actions or maneuvers without first manipulating the laparoscopic instruments in an initially disorientating, two-dimensional environment [6].

Due to the nature of laparoscopy, it will likely be