Quantitative evaluation of three advanced laparoscopic viewing technologies: a stereo endoscope, an image projection display, and a TFT display
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- Wentink, M., Jakimowicz, J., Vos, L. et al. Surg Endosc (2002) 16: 1237. doi:10.1007/s00464-001-9127-1
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Background: Compared to open surgery, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) relies heavily on advanced technology, such as endoscopic viewing systems and innovative instruments. The aim of the study was to objectively compare three technologically advanced laparoscopic viewing systems with the standard viewing system currently used in most Dutch hospitals. Methods: We evaluated the following advanced laparoscopic viewing systems: a Thin Film Transistor (TFT) display, a stereo endoscope, and an image projection display. The standard viewing system was comprised of a monocular endoscope and a high-resolution monitor. Task completion time served as the measure of performance. Eight surgeons with laparoscopic experience participated in the experiment. Results: The average task time was significantly greater (p <0.05) with the stereo viewing system than with the standard viewing system. The average task times with the TFT display and the image projection display did not differ significantly from the standard viewing system. Conclusion: Although the stereo viewing system promises improved depth perception and the TFT and image projection displays are supposed to improve hand–eye coordination, none of these systems provided better task performance than the standard viewing system in this pelvi-trainer experiment.