, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 183–190

Hyoid-Bolus Transit Latencies in Normal Swallow


DOI: 10.1007/s00455-006-9025-8

Cite this article as:
Leonard, R. & McKenzie, S. Dysphagia (2006) 21: 183. doi:10.1007/s00455-006-9025-8


Pharyngeal swallow delay is frequently found in dysphagic patients and is thought to be a factor in a range of swallowing problems, including aspiration. Implicit in notions of swallow “delay” is a temporal interval between two events that is longer than normal. However, there appears to be little agreement about which referent events should be considered in determining delay. A number of pharyngeal bolus transit points and various pharyngeal gestures have been used in delays determined from fluoroscopic evidence, and other referents have been used in electromyographic and manometric studies of swallow. In this study latencies between the first movement of the hyoid and several pharyngeal bolus transit points were calculated from fluoroscopic swallow studies in normal nondysphagic adults. Means and standard deviations of these latencies are provided for a 3-cc and a 20-cc bolus and for both nonelderly and elderly adults. The data may be a useful resource for relating the specific latencies investigated to concepts of pharyngeal swallow delay, in particular, when assessing videofluoroscopic studies using a similar protocol.


Hyoid-bolus transit latencies Deglutition Deglutition disorders. 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity CaliforniaSacramentoUSA

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