Special Issue Paper

Computer Science - Research and Development

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 109-117

First online:

The Green500 list: escapades to exascale

  • Tom ScoglandAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science, Virginia Tech Email author 
  • , Balaji SubramaniamAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science, Virginia Tech
  • , Wu-chun FengAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science, Virginia Tech

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Energy efficiency is now a top priority. The first four years of the Green500 have seen the importance of energy efficiency in supercomputing grow from an afterthought to the forefront of innovation as we approach a point where systems become increasingly constrained by power consumption. Even so, the landscape of energy efficiency in supercomputing continues to shift—with new trends emerging and unexpected shifts in previous predictions.

This paper offers an in-depth analysis of the new and shifting trends in the Green500. In addition, the analysis offers early indications of the path that we are taking towards exascale and what an exascale machine in 2018 is likely to look like. Lastly, we discuss the emerging efforts and collaborations toward designing and establishing better metrics, methodologies, and workloads for the measurement and analysis of energy-efficient supercomputing.


Green supercomputing Energy efficiency Performance Power Green500 Graphics processing unit (GPU) The Green Index (TGI) SPEC Exascale computing