, Volume 64, Issue 1, pp 55-68
Date: 20 Nov 2001

Caldera collapse during the 2000 eruption of Miyakejima Volcano, Japan

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A collapsed caldera, 1.6 km in diameter and 450 m in depth, was formed at the summit of Miyakejima Volcano during the 2000 eruption. The collapsed caldera appeared on 8 July, with a minor phreatic eruption, 12 days after seismic activity and magma intrusion occurred northwest of the volcano. Growth of the caldera took from 8 July to the middle of August, with seismic swarms associated with the continuous intrusion of magma northwest of the volcano. The growth rate of the caldera was about 1.4×107 m3/day, and the final volume of the collapsed caldera was about 6×108 m3. Major phreatomagmatic eruptions produced a total of about 1.6×1010 kg (1.1×107 m3) of volcanic ash after caldera growth. The caldera structure, and the nature of the eruptive materials of the first collapse on 8 July, suggest that the surface subsidence was caused by the upward migration of a steam-filled cavity, with stoping of the roof rock above the magma reservoir. The diameter of the stoping column was estimated to be 600–700 m from circumferential faults that developed in the caldera floor, and the collapse of the caldera wall enlarged the diameter of the caldera to 1.6 km. The total volume of the caldera and the horizontal diameter of the stoping column gave a subsidence of the caldera floor of 1.6–2.1 km.