, Volume 115, Issue 4, pp 541-552

Allocation of nitrogen to an inducible defense and seed production in Nicotiana attenuata

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Abstract

Resource-based tradeoffs in the allocation of a limiting resource are commonly invoked to explain negative correlations between growth and defense in plants, but critical examinations of these tradeoffs are lacking. To rigorously quantify tradeoffs in a common currency, we grew Nicotiana attenuata plants in individual hydroponic chambers, induced nicotine production by treating roots with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and standardized leaf puncturing, and used 15N to determine whether nitrogen-based tradeoffs among nicotine production, growth, and seed production could be detected. Plants were treated with a range of MJ quantities (5, 45 or 250 μg plant−1) to effect a physiologically realistic range of changes in endogenous jasmonic acid levels and increases in nicotine production and accumulation; MJ treatments were applied to the roots to target JA-induced nicotine production, since nicotine biosynthesis is restricted to the roots. Leaf puncturing and 5 μg MJ treatments increased de novo nicotine synthesis and whole-plant (WP) nicotine pools by 93 and 66%, while 250 μg MJ treatments increased these values 3.1 and 2.5-fold. At these high rates of nicotine production, plants incorporated 5.7% of current nitrogen uptake and 6.0% of their WP nitrogen pools into nicotine. The 15N-labeled nicotine pools were stable or increased for the duration of vegetative growth, indicating that the N-nicotine was not metabolized and re-used for growth. Plants with elevated nicotine production grew more slowly and the differences in plant biomass gain between MJ-treated plants and controls were linearly related to the differences in nicotine accumulation. Despite the reductions in rosette-stage growth associated with nicotine production, estimates of lifetime fitness (cumulative lifetime seed production, mass/seed, seed viability) were not affected by any treatment. Only two treatments (leaf puncturing and 250 μg MJ) increased the allocations of 15N acquired at the time of induction to seed production. On average, plants used only 14.9% of their WP nitrogen pool for seed production, indicating that either the nitrogen requirements for seed production or the reproductive effort of these hydroponically-grown plants are low. To determine if seed production is strongly influenced by the amount of vegetative biomass attained before reproduction, the experiment was repeated with plants that had 44% of their leaf area (or 29% of their WP biomass) removed before MJ treatments with a removal technique that minimized the nicotine response. MJ treatments of these plants dramatically increased nicotine production and accumulation, but these plants also suffered no measurable fitness consequences from either the leaf removal or MJ treatments. We conclude that when N. attenuata plants are grown in these individual hydroponic chambers, their allocation to reproduction is sufficiently buffered to obscure the large increases in nitrogen allocations to an inducible defense. To determine whether soil-grown plants are similarly buffered, we grew two genotypes of plants in the high-nutrient soil from a 1-year-old burn in a piñyon-juniper forest (the plants' natural habitat) and in low-nutrient soil from an adjacent unburned area, and induced nicotine production in half of the plants with a 500 μg root MJ treatment. Plants grown in burned soils had an estimated lifetime fitness that was on average 2.8-fold greater than that of plants grown in unburned soils. MJ treatment reduced fitness estimates by 43% and 71% in the burned and unburned soils, respectively. We conclude that while hydroponic culture allows one to rigorously quantitate nitrogen allocation to growth, reproduction and defense, the allocation patterns of plants grown in hydroponic culture differ from those of plants grown in soil. Under hydroponic conditions, plants have low reproductive allocations and reproductive-defense tradeoffs are not detected. Reproductive-defense tradeoffs are readily discernible in soil-grown plants, but under these growing conditions, the nitrogen-basis for the tradeoff is difficult to quantify.