, Volume 113, Issue 2, pp 203–209

Predator-induced delayed maturity in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus): variation among populations


  • Mark C. Belk
    • Department of Zoology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA Fax: (801) 378-7423; e-mail: MARK_BELK@BYU.EDU

DOI: 10.1007/s004420050369

Cite this article as:
Belk, M. Oecologia (1998) 113: 203. doi:10.1007/s004420050369


Previous studies suggested that differences in age at maturity among populations of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were not genetically based, but rather were a phenotypic response to the presence of predators. I conducted two experiments to determine if the presence of largemouth bass affected age at maturity in bluegill sunfish. Bluegills from three populations were tested to see if the response to the threat of predation varied among source populations. Juvenile bluegills were maintained in the presence of predators or in controls with no contact with predators. Refuge use and growth were monitored during the experiments and reproductive activity was evaluated when bluegills reached age 1. Bluegills from one population exhibited delayed maturity in the presence of predators. Individuals from the other two populations showed no significant differences between predator and control treatments. The population that responded to the presence of predators had a history of high predation levels over the past 30–40 years. The other populations had a history of low levels of predation. This study suggests that presence of predators can induce phenotypic shifts in age at maturity of bluegills, but that the magnitude of response varies among populations in a manner consistent with historical patterns of coexistence.

Key words Life historyPredationPhenotypic plasticityBluegill sunfishNonlethal effects of predators
Download to read the full article text

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998