, Volume 167, Issue 1, pp 97–105

Interaction between ungulates and bruchid beetles and its effect on Acacia trees: modeling the costs and benefits of seed dispersal to plant demography

  • Javier Rodríguez-Pérez
  • Kerstin Wiegand
  • David Ward
Plant-Animal interactions - Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00442-011-1964-6

Cite this article as:
Rodríguez-Pérez, J., Wiegand, K. & Ward, D. Oecologia (2011) 167: 97. doi:10.1007/s00442-011-1964-6


Integrative studies of plant–animal interactions that incorporate the multiple effects of interactions are important for discerning the importance of each factor within the population dynamics of a plant species. The low regeneration capacity of many Acacia species in arid savannas is a consequence of a combination of reduction in seed dispersal and high seed predation. Here we studied how ungulates (acting as both seed dispersers and herbivores) and bruchid beetles (post-dispersal seed predators) modulate the population dynamics of A. raddiana, a keystone species in the Middle East. We developed two simulation models of plant demography: the first included seed ingestion by ungulates and seed predation by bruchids, whereas the second model additionally incorporated herbivory by ungulates. We also included the interacting effects of seed removal and body mass, because larger ungulates destroy proportionally fewer seeds and enhance seed germination. Simulations showed that the negative effect of seed predation on acacia population size was compensated for by the positive effect of seed ingestion at 50 and 30% seed removal under scenarios with and without herbivory, respectively. Smaller ungulates (e.g., <35 kg) must necessarily remove tenfold more seeds than larger ungulates (e.g., >250 kg) to compensate for the negative effect of seed predation. Seedling proportion increased with seed removal in the model with herbivory. Managing and restoring acacia seed dispersers is key to conserving acacia populations, because low-to-medium seed removal could quickly restore their regeneration capacity.


Herbivory Population growth rate Seed removal Seed predation Simulation models 

Supplementary material

442_2011_1964_MOESM1_ESM.doc (313 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 313 kb)
442_2011_1964_MOESM2_ESM.doc (156 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 156 kb)
442_2011_1964_MOESM3_ESM.doc (26 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 27 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Rodríguez-Pérez
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kerstin Wiegand
    • 1
    • 4
  • David Ward
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of EcologyUniversity of JenaJenaGermany
  2. 2.School of Biological and Conservation SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalScottsvilleSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Ecological ModellingHelmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZLeipzigGermany
  4. 4.Ecosystem ModellingUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany