Oecologia

, Volume 158, Issue 4, pp 615–623

Testing the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis: physiological responses and predator pressure in wild rabbits

  • Raquel Monclús
  • Francisco Palomares
  • Zulima Tablado
  • Ana Martínez-Fontúrbel
  • Rupert Palme
Physiological Ecology - Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00442-008-1201-0

Cite this article as:
Monclús, R., Palomares, F., Tablado, Z. et al. Oecologia (2009) 158: 615. doi:10.1007/s00442-008-1201-0

Abstract

Predation is a strong selective force with both direct and indirect effects on an animal’s fitness. In order to increase the chances of survival, animals have developed different antipredator strategies. However, these strategies have associated costs, so animals should assess their actual risk of predation and shape their antipredator effort accordingly. Under a stressful situation, such as the presence of predators, animals display a physiological stress response that might be proportional to the risk perceived. We tested this hypothesis in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), subjected to different predator pressures, in Doñana National Park (Spain). We measured the concentrations of fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in 20 rabbit populations. By means of track censuses we obtained indexes of mammalian predator presence for each rabbit population. Other factors that could modify the physiological stress response, such as breeding status, food availability and rabbit density, were also considered. Model selection based on information theory showed that predator pressure was the main factor triggering the glucocorticoid release and that the physiological stress response was positively correlated with the indexes of the presence of mammalian carnivore predators. Other factors, such as food availability and density of rabbits, were considerably less important. We conclude that rabbits are able to assess their actual risk of predation and show a threat-sensitive physiological response.

Keywords

Fecal corticosterone metabolites Oryctolagus cuniculus Predator pressure Threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raquel Monclús
    • 1
  • Francisco Palomares
    • 2
  • Zulima Tablado
    • 2
  • Ana Martínez-Fontúrbel
    • 2
  • Rupert Palme
    • 3
  1. 1.Departmento de BiologíaUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Departmant of Conservation BiologyEstación Biológica de Doñana, CSICSevillaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Natural Sciences, Institute of BiochemistryUniversity of Veterinary Medicine of ViennaViennaAustria

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