, Volume 142, Issue 2, pp 177–183

Predation by sparrowhawks decreases with increased breeding density in a songbird, the great tit

Population Ecology

DOI: 10.1007/s00442-004-1715-z

Cite this article as:
Götmark, F. & Andersson, M. Oecologia (2005) 142: 177. doi:10.1007/s00442-004-1715-z


Predators may regulate prey populations if predation rate increases with prey density. Alternatively, if space-limited (e.g. territorial) predators become ‘satiated’ when prey exceed a certain density, increased prey abundance may lead to reduced predation rate. These alternatives have been difficult to test experimentally for mobile prey in the wild. We present such a test, manipulating the density of great tits (Parus major) by adding nest boxes in territories of sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). Predation rate was measured for young tits after they left the nests. Although the great tit is an important prey, there was no evidence for regulation during the breeding season: the rate of hawk predation declined with increasing density of tits. This result was not confounded by changes in breeding density of alternative prey species (other songbirds). Hawk predation can therefore favour dense breeding in a territorial (solitary) bird, and conspecific attraction and aggregation reported in several territorial species may partly result from predation pressure. This result also has potential implications for conservation work.


Conservation Density dependence Field experiment Fledgling prey Predator satiation 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Animal Ecology, Department of ZoologyUniversity of GöteborgGöteborgSweden

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