, Volume 140, Issue 3, pp 491–494

Pollinator service only depends on nectar production rates in sparse populations

  • Peter G. L. Klinkhamer
  • Peter-Paul van der Lugt
Plant Animal Interactions

DOI: 10.1007/s00442-004-1569-4

Cite this article as:
Klinkhamer, P.G.L. & van der Lugt, PP. Oecologia (2004) 140: 491. doi:10.1007/s00442-004-1569-4


As predicted, approach rate by bumblebees is strongly related to the nectar production rate of Echium vulgare plants in a sparse population, while in a dense population such a relationship is completely absent. These findings are confirmed by additional experiments with potted plants that were placed inside and outside a natural population. The results suggest that the direction of selection on nectar production may vary in space or time depending on population density. Such variation may help to explain the large genetic variation we found earlier for E. vulgare in our study area.


Bumblebees Boutlength Echium vulgare Plant’s dilemma Population 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter G. L. Klinkhamer
    • 1
  • Peter-Paul van der Lugt
    • 1
  1. 1.Section Plant Ecology, Institute for Evolutionary and Ecological SciencesUniversity of LeidenRA LeidenThe Netherlands

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