, Volume 139, Issue 1, pp 30–34

Cold temperature increases winter fruit removal rate of a bird-dispersed shrub


    • Department of ZoologyUniversity of Florida
    • Savannah River Ecology Laboratory
  • Douglas J. Levey
    • Department of ZoologyUniversity of Florida
  • Cathryn H. Greenberg
    • Southern Research StationUSDA Forest Service
  • Scott F. Pearson
    • Department of ZoologyUniversity of Florida
    • Washington Natural Areas ProgramWashington Department of Natural Resources
  • John P. McCarty
    • Department of ZoologyUniversity of Florida
    • Department of BiologyUniversity of Nebraska at Omaha
  • Sarah Sargent
    • Department of ZoologyUniversity of Florida
    • Department of BiologyAllegheny College
Plant Animal Interactions

DOI: 10.1007/s00442-003-1470-6

Cite this article as:
Kwit, C., Levey, D.J., Greenberg, C.H. et al. Oecologia (2004) 139: 30. doi:10.1007/s00442-003-1470-6


We tested the hypothesis that winter removal rates of fruits of wax myrtle, Myrica cerifera, are higher in colder winters. Over a 9-year period, we monitored M. cerifera fruit crops in 13 0.1-ha study plots in South Carolina, U.S.A. Peak ripeness occurred in November, whereas peak removal occurred in the coldest months, December and January. Mean time to fruit removal within study plots was positively correlated with mean winter temperatures, thereby supporting our hypothesis. This result, combined with the generally low availability of winter arthropods, suggests that fruit abundance may play a role in determining winter survivorship and distribution of permanent resident and short-distance migrant birds. From the plant’s perspective, it demonstrates inter-annual variation in the temporal component of seed dispersal, with possible consequences for post-dispersal seed and seedling ecology.


Avian seed dispersalFrugivorySeed predationWinter foodYellow-rumped warbler.

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© Springer-Verlag 2004