, Volume 343, Issue 1, pp 189-199

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a master regulator of innate immunity

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Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) comprise intracellular molecules characterized by the ability to reach the extracellular environment, where they prompt inflammation and tissue repair. The high-mobility box group 1 (HMGB1) protein is a prototypic DAMP and is highly conserved in evolution. HMGB1 is released upon cell and tissue necrosis and is actively produced by immune cells. Evidence suggests that HMGB1 acts as a key molecule of innate immunity, downstream of persistent tissue injury, orchestrating inflammation, stem cell recruitment/activation, and eventual tissue remodeling.