Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 343, Issue 1, pp 97-106

First online:

Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity and Toll-like receptors in the lung

  • David SchnebergerAffiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan
  • , Karin Aharonson-RazAffiliated withKoret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • , Baljit SinghAffiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan Email author 

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Mononuclear phagocytes are crucial components of the innate host defense system. Cells such as macrophages and monocytes phagocytose and process pathogens, produce inflammatory mediators, and link the innate and the adaptive immune systems. The role of innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the recognition of pathogens is critical for mounting a precise and targeted immune response. This review focuses attention on the development of monocytes and macrophages, various populations of macrophages, and the expression and function of TLRs on macrophages.


Lung Innate immunity Pulmonary intravascular macrophages Toll-like receptors Heterogeneity