, Volume 265, Issue 2, pp 207-214

Conversion of AFLP bands into high-throughput DNA markers

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Abstract.

The conversion of AFLP bands into polymorphic sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers is necessary for high-throughput genotype scoring. Technical hurdles that must be overcome arise from genome complexity (particularly sequence duplication), from the low-molecular-weight nature of the AFLP bands and from the location of the polymorphism within the AFLP band. We generated six STS markers from ten AFLP bands (four AFLPs were from co-dominant pairs of bands) in soybean (Glycine max). The markers were all linked to one of two loci, rhg1 on linkage group G and Rhg4 on linkage group A2, that confer resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines I.). When the polymorphic AFLP band sequence contained a duplicated sequence or could not be converted to a locus-specific STS marker, direct sequencing of BAC clones anchored to a physical map generated locus-specific flanking sequences at the polymorphic locus. When the polymorphism was adjacent to the restriction site used in the AFLP analysis, single primer extension was performed to reconstruct the polymorphism. The six converted AFLP markers represented 996 bp of sequence from alleles of each of two cultivars and identified eight insertions or deletions, two microsatellites and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The polymorphic sequences were used to design a non-electrophoretic, fluorometric assay (based on the TaqMan technology) and/or develop electrophoretic STS markers for high-throughput genotype determination during marker-assisted breeding for resistance to cyst nematode. We conclude that the converted AFLP markers contained polymorphism at a 10- to 20-fold higher frequency than expected for adapted soybean cultivars and that the efficiency of AFLP band conversion to STS can be improved using BAC libraries and physical maps. The method provides an efficient tool for SNP and STS discovery suitable for marker-assisted breeding and genomics.

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