The Efficacy of Trichlorphon and Naphthalophos against Multiple Anthelmintic-Resistant Nematodes of Naturally Infected Sheep in Argentina
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- Fiel, C., Guzmán, M., Steffan, P. et al. Parasitol Res (2011) 109: 139. doi:10.1007/s00436-011-2410-8
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An anthelmintic efficacy trial was conducted in sheep harbouring anthelmintic-resistant worms in Argentina. Seventy lambs were selected from a flock that had been grazed on pastures infected with trichostrongyles previously shown to be resistant to the main anthelmintic groups. Lambs were allocated to comparable groups of ten animals each and treated with trichlorphon (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) orally); naphthalophos (50 mg/kg b.w. orally); ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg b.w. subcutaneously); fenbendazole (5 mg/kg b.w. orally); levamisole (8 mg/kg b.w. subcutaneously) and closantel (10 mg/kg b.w. orally). There was also an untreated group. The dose selection was based on manufacturer’s recommendations.
Faecal samples were collected 0 and 10 days post treatment to estimate efficacy (faecal egg count reduction). Six animals from each group were necropsied at day 10 for enumeration/identification of worms from the abomasum, small and large intestines to determine the absolute efficacy of each agent (controlled efficacy test). Trichlorphon and naphthalophos were effective (> 99 %) against Haemonchus contortus (p < 0.05).
Naphthalophos also showed efficacy against Trichostrongylus axei (99.3 %), Teladorsagia circumcincta (97.8 %), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (99.2 %), Cooperia punctata/curticei/pectinata (90.4 %), Nematodirus spathiger (89.2 %) and Oesophagostomum venulosum/columbianum (93.7 %). Fenbendazole and levamisole showed efficacy (> 95 %) against all nematodes except T. colubriformis. The efficacy of ivermectin was low against H. contortus (23 %) and Cooperia spp. (46.3 %). Closantel showed low efficacy against T. axei (64.4 %), H. contortus (80.6 %) and T. colubriformis (59.5 %).
When anthelmintic resistance is widespread, trichlorphon treatment is appropriate if H. contortus is present; however, naphthalophos represents an effective therapeutic alternative for incorporation into worm control programmes.