Pyrethroid and organophosphates resistance in Anopheles (N.) nuneztovari Gabaldón populations from malaria endemic areas in Colombia
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- Fonseca-González, I., Cárdenas, R., Quiñones, M.L. et al. Parasitol Res (2009) 105: 1399. doi:10.1007/s00436-009-1570-2
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Field populations of Colombian malaria vector Anopheles (N.) nuneztovari were studied using World Health Organization (WHO) and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bioassay techniques and through the use of biochemical microplate-based assays for resistance enzymes. Insecticides evaluated included the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, organophosphates malathion and fenitrothion, and the organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Study sites selected were based upon malaria incidence, vector presence, and control activities in Colombia. Early stage selection for reduced susceptibility was observed in the bioassays for some locations. Data from the WHO and CDC bioassay methods were broadly consistent, with some differences noted. Evidence is presented for low-level initial selection of some resistance mechanisms such as mixed-function oxidases and modified acetylcholinesterase. Data from the site Encharcazón implies that selection for DDT-pyrethroid cross-resistance has occurred, though not likely at a level that currently threatens vector control by either class of insecticides, and further implies that knockdown resistance (kdr) may be present in those populations. Further studies using synergists and development of a kdr-specific assay for A. nuneztovari thus become priorities. The resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin found in the Encharcazón population are of concern since these two insecticides are currently used for both indoor spraying and treated nets. In addition, the resistance to fenitrothion, the indoor spray insecticide mostly used for this species due to their exophilic behavior, found in the El Zulia population, makes urgent to find alternatives for chemical control in these areas. These data provide the initial baselines for insecticide susceptibility profiles for A. nuneztovari in Colombia and the first report of insecticide resistance in this vector.