, Volume 137, Issue 8, pp 1151-1173
Date: 17 Jun 2011

Circulating tumor cells: advances in detection methods, biological issues, and clinical relevance

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Abstract

Background

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have long been considered a reflection of tumor aggressiveness. Hematogenous spreading of CTCs from a primary tumor is a crucial step in the metastasis cascade, which leads ultimately to the formation of overt metastases. However, owing to the rarity of CTCs in peripheral blood, detecting these cells requires methods combined with high sensitivity and specificity, which sets tremendous challenges for the implementation of these assays into clinical routine.

Methods

Generally, CTCs detection methods are composed of the following two steps: enrichment (isolation) process (morphological and immunological techniques) and detection (identification) process (cytometric and nucleic acid techniques), which may or may not be separate from enrichment. Genetic and molecular characterization of CTCs carried out by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), PCR-based techniques, and biomarker immunofluorescent staining extract more information about malignant profile, metastatic potential of CTCs, and the extent to which CTCs are genetically identical to the primary tumor.

Results

Recent technical advances made it possible to detect CTCs. The efficacy of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection among patients with solid malignancy has been investigated, which shows great potential to become a tool for real-time parameter of prognosis and serve as an early marker to assess the therapeutic response in overt cancers. Improvements in detection and characterization of CTCs will hopefully lead to refinement of clinical management of cancer patients.

Conclusion

This review addresses the majority of assays that have been published thus far, including the enrichment and detection steps and the markers used in these assays, accompanied by some biological issues of CTC and the results of clinical application harvested.