The impact of smoking and polymorphic enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism on the stage of bladder tumors: a generalized ordered logistic regression analysis
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- Khedhiri, S., Stambouli, N., Ouerhani, S. et al. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol (2010) 136: 1111. doi:10.1007/s00432-009-0758-2
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Cigarette smoking is the predominant risk factor for bladder cancer in males and females. The tobacco carcinogens are metabolized by various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes such as N-acetyltransferases (NAT) and glutathione S-transferases (GST). Polymorphisms in NAT and GST genes alter the ability of these enzymes to metabolize carcinogens. In this paper, we conduct a statistical analysis based on logistic regressions to assess the impact of smoking and metabolizing enzyme genotypes on the risk to develop bladder cancer using a case–control study from Tunisia. We also use the generalized ordered logistic model to investigate whether these factors do have an impact on the progression of bladder tumors.