Original Paper

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

, Volume 136, Issue 6, pp 847-854

First online:

Promoter hypermethylation in tumour suppressor genes and response to interleukin-2 treatment in bladder cancer: a pilot study

  • Sonata JarmalaiteAffiliated withFaculty of Natural Sciences, Vilnius University Email author 
  • , Rasa AndrekuteAffiliated withFaculty of Natural Sciences, Vilnius University
  • , Asta ScesnaiteAffiliated withFaculty of Natural Sciences, Vilnius University
  • , Kestutis SuziedelisAffiliated withInstitute of Oncology, Vilnius University
  • , Kirsti Husgafvel-PursiainenAffiliated withBiological Mechanisms and Prevention of Work-Related Diseases, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
  • , Feliksas JankeviciusAffiliated withFaculty of Medicine, Vilnius University

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access



Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (BC) is a highly recurrent disease, with the first recurrences arising shortly after transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). Topical administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been shown as an effective adjuvant therapy for BC; however, predictive biomarkers that may identify suitable subgroups of patients are lacking. In this pilot study we sought to determine the prognostic value of epigenetic and genetic inactivation of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) among BC patients treated with IL-2.


After complete TURB, patients with multifocal superficial BC were treated with five daily intravesical instillations of IL-2. Promoter hypermethylation in six TSGs and the TP53 gene mutations were prospectively assessed by methylation-specific PCR and automated capillary single-strand conformation polymorphism in 21 primary bladder cancer specimens and ten bladder wall biopsies collected during follow-up.


After IL-2 treatment, 9 out of 21 (43%) patients did not develop recurrent tumour within the 1 year of follow-up period. The mean duration of recurrence-free survival in the rest of the study group was 112 days. In the current pilot study, BC with p16 gene hypermethylation had a lower risk of recurrence after treatment with IL-2, as compared to IL-2 treated BC without p16 hypermethylation (p = 0.02). Significant associations were observed between tumour grade and the mean methylation index (p = 0.003), as well as the hypermethylation of the RARβ gene (p = 0.048).


Our preliminary data suggest that DNA methylation biomarkers may assist in selection of BC patients for efficient IL-2 therapy.


Bladder cancer Promoter hypermethylation Interleukin-2 Tumour suppressor genes p16 gene