, Volume 133, Issue 11, pp 835-840

CXCL5 overexpression is associated with late stage gastric cancer

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Abstract

Purpose

Chemokines play multiple roles in the development and progression of many different tumors. Our cDNA array data suggested that chemokine CXCL5 was upregulated in gastric cancer. Here, we analyzed CXCL5 protein expression in gastric cancer and investigated the clinical implications of CXCL5 upregulation.

Methods

Immunostaining for CXCL5 was performed on gastric tissue microarrays of tissue specimens obtained by gastrectomy. The intensity of immunostaining in tumor tissue was considered strong when tumor tissue staining was more intense than in normal tissue; the intensity was null when staining was weaker in the tumor than in normal tissue; and the intensity was weak when staining was similar in both tissues. Serum CXCL5 levels and microvascular density in tumor tissue were measured by ELISA and monoclonal antibody to Factor VIII.

Results

Strong CXCL5 expression correlated with tumor stage. CXCL5 expression did not correlate with T stage. However, N stage positively correlated with CXCL5 expression. Serum CXCL5 levels in late stage (IIIB, IV) gastric cancer patients were higher than in patients with benign conditions. Microvascular density was higher in tumors with strong CXCL5 expression, but the correlation with CXCL5 was not linear. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that, compared to no or weak expression, strong expression of CXCL5 was a significant risk factor for high N stage (N2, N3).

Conclusions

CXCL5 overexpression was associated with late stage gastric cancer and high N stage. These results suggest a role for CXCL5 in the progression of gastric cancer, specifically in lymph node metastasis.