Alcohol, smoking and human papillomavirus in laryngeal carcinoma: a Nordic prospective multicenter study
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- Koskinen, W.J., Brøndbo, K., Mellin Dahlstrand, H. et al. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol (2007) 133: 673. doi:10.1007/s00432-007-0219-8
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to oropharyngeal carcinomas, but its role in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is not clear. A prospective multicenter study based on known tumor-cell percentage of fresh frozen carcinoma biopsies was established to determine the HPV prevalence. Moreover risk factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, chronic laryngitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were evaluated
Fresh-frozen laryngeal cancer biopsies from 108 patients in Finland, Norway, and Sweden were investigated. Patients whose biopsy samples contained at least 20% tumor tissue (N = 69) entered the study. HPV DNA was determined with MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ nested PCR and SPF10 PCR hybridization assay. Patients were examined by an ENT specialist and an extensive questionnaire concerning risk factors was filled in.
Only three patients (4.4%) harbored HPV DNA in their carcinoma sample. Heavy alcohol drinking was associated with an increased risk of death, advanced-stage disease, and younger age at diagnosis. Chronic laryngitis, GERD, and orogenital sex contacts were rare. Poor oral hygiene was not associated with survival, although it correlated with heavy drinking.
In our series HPV was not important in LSCC. Heavy drinking led to major mortality in LSCC and promoted early carcinogenesis.