European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 173, Issue 9, pp 1169–1177

Caloric beverage drinking patterns are differentially associated with diet quality and adiposity among Spanish girls and boys

  • Helmut Schröder
  • Michelle A. Mendez
  • Lourdes Ribas
  • Anna N. Funtikova
  • Santiago F. Gomez
  • Montserrat Fíto
  • Javier Aranceta
  • Lluis Serra-Majem
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00431-014-2302-x

Cite this article as:
Schröder, H., Mendez, M.A., Ribas, L. et al. Eur J Pediatr (2014) 173: 1169. doi:10.1007/s00431-014-2302-x

Abstract

The present study assesses the impact of beverage consumption pattern on diet quality and anthropometric proxy measures for abdominal adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 1,149 Spanish adolescents aged 10–18 years. Height, weight, and waist circumferences were measured. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-h recall. Beverage patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the KIDMED index. Three beverage clusters were identified for boys—“whole milk” (62.5 %), “low-fat milk” (17.5 %) and “soft drinks” (20.1 %)—and for girls—whole milk” (57.8 %), “low-fat milk” (20.8 %) and juice (21.4 %), accounting for 8.3, 9.6, 13.9, 8.6, 11.5 and 12.9 % of total energy intake, respectively. Each unit of increase in the KIDMED index was associated with a 14.0 % higher (p = 0.004) and 11.0 % lower (p = 0.048) probability of membership in the “low-fat milk” and “soft drinks” cluster in girls and boys, respectively, compared with the “whole milk” cluster. Boys in the “soft drinks” cluster had a higher risk of 1-unit increase in BMI z score (29.0 %, p = 0.040), 1-cm increase in waist circumference regressed on height and age (3.0 %, p = 0.027) and 0.1-unit increase in waist/height ratio (21.4 %, p = 0.031) compared with the “whole milk” cluster. Conclusion: A caloric beverage pattern dominated by intake of “soft drinks” is related to general and abdominal adiposity and diet quality in Spanish male adolescents.

Keywords

Soft drinksAdiposityCluster analysisKIDMED index

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

BMR

Basal metabolic rate

PAL

Physical activity level

SSB

Sugar-sweetened beverages

WC

Waist circumference

WHtR

Waist/height ratio

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Schröder
    • 1
    • 2
    • 9
  • Michelle A. Mendez
    • 3
  • Lourdes Ribas
    • 4
    • 5
  • Anna N. Funtikova
    • 1
    • 2
  • Santiago F. Gomez
    • 1
    • 6
  • Montserrat Fíto
    • 1
    • 5
  • Javier Aranceta
    • 4
    • 7
  • Lluis Serra-Majem
    • 4
    • 5
    • 8
  1. 1.Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group (CARIN), REGICOR Study Group, Research Programme in Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Disorders (RICAD)IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP)Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  3. 3.Gillings School of Global Public HealthUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Fundación para la Investigación Nutricional (Nutrition Research Foundation)BarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN)Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain
  6. 6.Fundación THAOBarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Department of Preventive Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  8. 8.Department of Clinical SciencesUniversity of Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain
  9. 9.Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research GroupIMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain