, Volume 167, Issue 2, pp 149-154
Date: 28 Feb 2007

A cross-sectional study of dietary habits and lipid profiles. The Rivas-Vaciamadrid study

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Abstract

The relations between dietary habits and serum lipids have been firmly established in adults. In children, this relation has been less extensively studied. We have assessed the relations between dietary components, including the different types of fatty acids (saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated) and serum lipids and apolipoproteins in a group of 673 6-year-old children of the town of Rivas-Vaciamadrid, Spain. Children in the highest tertile of total fat consumption, when compared with children in the lowest tertile, had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (188.3 mg/dl vs. 146.8 mg/dl), triglycerides (56.7 mg/dl vs. 51.3 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (120.7 mg/dl vs. 92.6 mg/dl), HDL cholesterol (56.2 mg/dl vs. 54.5 mg/dl) and apolipoprotein B (86.8 mg/dl vs. 62.9 mg/dl). When compared with children in the lowest tertile, children in the highest tertile of saturated fat consumption had significantly higher mean levels of total cholesterol (206.3 mg/dl vs. 151.8 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (140.6 mg/dl vs. 95.1 mg/dl) and apolipoprotein B (99.2 mg/dl vs. 64.3 mg/dl) and lower mean levels of HDL cholesterol (53.5 mg/dl vs. 57.5 mg/dl), whereas children in the highest tertile of monounsaturated fat consumption had significantly higher mean levels of HDL cholesterol (56.5 mg/dl vs. 51.8 mg/dl) and lower levels of total cholesterol (133.2 mg/dl vs. 201.6 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (93.1 mg/dl vs. 137.5 mg/dl) and apolipoprotein B (68.6 mg/dl vs. 94.9 mg/dl) than children in the lowest tertile. No statistically significant relation between polyunsaturated fat and lipid levels was found. We have found a strong association between diet composition and lipid and apolipoprotein levels in 6-year-old children. Our findings strengthen the role of monounsaturated fatty acid consumption as a part of a healthy diet in childhood.