Sedation and analgesia for brief diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children
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- Meyer, S., Grundmann, U., Gottschling, S. et al. Eur J Pediatr (2007) 166: 291. doi:10.1007/s00431-006-0356-0
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The number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures done outside of the operating room and the intensive care unit has increased substantially in recent years. In parallel, the management of acute pain and anxiety in children undergoing therapeutic and diagnostic procedures has developed considerably in the past two decades. The primary goal of procedural sedation and analgesia is the safe and efficacious control of emotional distress and pain. The availability of non-invasive monitoring, short-acting opioids and sedatives has broadened the possibilities of sedation and analgesia in children in diverse settings. While most of these procedures themselves pose little risk to the child, the administration of sedation or analgesia may add substantial risk to the patient. This article reviews the current status of sedation and analgesia for invasive and non-invasive procedures in children providing an evidence-based approach to several topics of importance, including patient assessment, personnel requirements, equipment, monitoring, and drugs.