European Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 165, Issue 11, pp 741–746

Population clinical pharmacology of children: general principles

Authors

    • Department of AnaesthesiologyUniversity of Auckland
    • C/-PICUAuckland Children’s Hospital
  • Karel Allegaert
    • Neonatal Intensive Care UnitUniversity Hospital Gasthuisberg
  • Nicholas H. G. Holford
    • Department of Pharmacology and Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of Auckland
Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00431-006-0188-y

Cite this article as:
Anderson, B.J., Allegaert, K. & Holford, N.H.G. Eur J Pediatr (2006) 165: 741. doi:10.1007/s00431-006-0188-y

Abstract

Introduction

Population modelling using mixed-effects models provides a means to study variability in drug responses among individuals representative of those for whom the drug will be used clinically.

Discussion

The advantages of these models in paediatric studies are that they can be used to analyse sparse data, sampling times are not crucial and can be fitted around clinical procedures and individuals with missing data may still be included in the analysis. The introduction of explanatory covariates explains the predictable part of the between-individual variability. Simulations using parameter estimates and their variability can be used to investigate large numbers of children – many more than is possible in studies dealing with real children – for a fraction of the cost, which is an advantage when developing clinical trials. Paediatric population modelling has expanded greatly in the past decade and is now a routine procedure during the development and investigation of drugs. Children have benefitted and will continue to benefit from this approach.

Keywords

AllometryChildrenPharmacodynamicsPharmacokineticsPopulation modelling

Abbreviations

CL

clearance

ka

absorption rate constant

Ln

natural logarithm

NONMEM

Nonlinear mixed-effects model

PD

pharmacodynamics

PK

pharmacokinetics

Tabs

absorption half time

TDM

therapeutic drug monitoring

V

volume of distribution

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006