TSC1 and TSC2 mutations in tuberous sclerosis, the associated phenotypes and a model to explain observed TSC1/TSC2 frequency ratios
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- Langkau, N., Martin, N., Brandt, R. et al. Eur J Pediatr (2002) 161: 393. doi:10.1007/s00431-001-0903-7
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Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a multisystem disease with manifestations in the central nervous system, skin, kidneys, heart, and other visceral organs. The development of TSC is associated with alterations within a gene on chromosome 9q34 (TSC1) and a gene on chromosome 16p13 (TSC2). Most de-novo patients show a mutation in TSC2, whereas only 50% of all familial cases can be related to TSC2 mutations. In the present study, 68 unrelated patients with confirmed clinical manifestations of TSC were tested for mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. In total, we studied 59 sporadic cases and 9 familial cases, including one large family with TSC2 linkage. Two pathogenic mutations were found in TSC1. The TSC2 gene analysis revealed 29 mutations, including 3 large deletions and 26 small mutations, 15 of them truncating. Conclusion: the TSC1-TSC2 mutation ratio in our group of patients differs significantly from the 1:1 ratio previously predicted on the basis of linkage studies. There is an obvious paradox between the observed frequency of TSC1 mutations in familial cases and sporadic cases. An interestingly mild phenotype, observed in one of our TSC1 mutation carriers, led to the elaboration of a model that provides a plausible explanation for this paradox. We propose the presence of a very mildly affected patient group with TSC1-related disease who are not regularly detected by clinical diagnosis.