, Volume 193, Issue 4, pp 155-162

The functional interaction between CD98 and CD147 in regulation of virus-induced cell fusion and osteoclast formation

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Abstract

Membrane fusion is an important event in the functioning of a living organism. Life starts as a sperm fuses with the membrane of an egg, leading to its fertilization. Membrane fusion is also required for myogenesis, osteogenesis and placenta formation. Multinucleated giant cells originating from monocytes-macrophages are associated with granulomatous lesions formed in response to foreign bodies, viruses, and bacteria. The CD4 molecule acts as a receptor for HIV. The major virus envelope glycoprotein, gp120, attaches to CD4 molecules expressed on the host cell surface. After binding to CD4 on the target cells, HIV is internalized via direct, pH-independent fusion of the viral and cell membranes. However, attachment of HIV to CD4 on the target cells is not sufficient for fusion. Interaction of gp160-expressing cells with neighboring cells bearing surface CD4 molecules is also required for syncytium formation. Syncytium formation and subsequent generalized cell fusion have been reported as potentially important mechanisms of virus-induced cytotoxic effects. Some antibodies against CD98/FRP-1 suppressed virus-induced cell fusion and CD98-mediated cell fusion of monocytes, indicating that CD98/FRP-1 molecules are able to regulate cell fusion. In this study, the functional interaction between CD98 and CD147 was investigated. Three kinds (Ab1, 2, and 3) of anti-CD147 and three kinds of anti-CD98 antibodies were used. Ab1 suppressed CD98-mediated cell fusion, but showed no effect on cell aggregation of Cd+U2ME-7 cells, U937–2 cells expressing HIV gp160. On the other hand, Ab2 enhanced the CD98-mediated cell fusion. Ab1 showed suppressive effect at early stage and Ab2 showed enhancing effect at later stage. Ab2 and 3 suppressed the spontaneous cell agglutination and cell fusion of Cd+JME-2 cells, Jurkat cells expressing HIV gp160. Ab2 suppressed CD98-mediated cell fusion, but showed no effect on cell aggregation of Cd+JME-2 cells. Ab2 cancelled suppression of cell fusion induced by suppressive antibody against CD98. Ab2 and 3 also suppressed CD98-mediated cell fusion of monocytes. This study indicates the functional interaction between CD98 and CD147 in the regulation of cell fusion.