Cyclin D3 gene amplification in bladder carcinoma in situ
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- Lopez-Beltran, A., Ordóñez, J.L., Otero, A.P. et al. Virchows Arch (2010) 457: 555. doi:10.1007/s00428-010-0969-6
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Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a non-papillary high-grade, potentially aggressive, and unpredictable manifestation of bladder urothelial carcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess patterns of Cyclin D3 gene amplification in Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-treated CIS and correlate gene status with recurrence-free and progression-free survival. A sequential cohort series of 28 primary (isolated) or secondary (concomitant) bladder CIS samples in which there was enough tissue material to assess Cyclin D3 gene status by fluorescent in situ hybridization was the study group. Cyclin D3 gene amplification was present in 29% of secondary CIS; none of primary CIS samples had Cyclin D3 gene amplification. Cyclin D3 amplification was related to recurrence- (p = 0.046) and progression-free survival (p = 0.002). Type of bladder CIS (primary vs. secondary) was unrelated to recurrence- or progression-free survival in the current series. Cox’s regression analysis selected Cyclin D3 as an independent predictor of progression-free survival (p = 0.041, relative risk = 61.503, 95% confidence interval = 1.1–274.710). None of primary CIS cases recurred on follow-up; nine secondary CIS recurred and four of them progressed to invasive bladder carcinoma HG T1 (n = 1), T2b N0M0 (n = 1), T3b N1M0 (n = 1) and T4aN1M1 (n = 1). Mean recurrence ± SD (months) occurred at 19.5 ± 2.06 (95% (confidence interval (CI)), 15.5–23.6); mean progression (months) occurred at 23.8 ± 1.46 (95% (CI), 20.9–26.7). Our study suggests that Cyclin D3 gene amplification might be a predictor of aggressiveness in BCG-treated CIS.