Virchows Archiv

, Volume 454, Issue 4, pp 421–429

A European network for virtual microscopy—design, implementation and evaluation of performance

  • Mikael Lundin
  • Janusz Szymas
  • Ewert Linder
  • Hans Beck
  • Peter de Wilde
  • Han van Krieken
  • Marcial García Rojo
  • Ignacio Moreno
  • Aurelio Ariza
  • Sitki Tuzlali
  • Sergülen Dervişoğlu
  • Heikki Helin
  • Veli-Pekka Lehto
  • Johan Lundin
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00428-009-0749-3

Cite this article as:
Lundin, M., Szymas, J., Linder, E. et al. Virchows Arch (2009) 454: 421. doi:10.1007/s00428-009-0749-3

Abstract

Web-based virtual microscopy has enabled new applications within pathology. Here, we introduce and evaluate a network of academic servers, designed to maximize image accessibility to users from all regions of Europe. Whole-slide imaging was utilized to digitize the entire slide set (n = 154) for the slide seminars of the 21st European Congress of Pathology. The virtual slides were mirrored to five academic servers across Europe using a novel propagation method. Functionality was implemented that automatically selects the fastest server connection in order to optimize the slide-viewing speed (http://www.webmicroscope.net/ECP2007). Results show that during 6 months of monitoring the uptime of the network was 100%. The average viewing speed with the network was 3.1 Mbit/s, as compared to 1.9 Mbit/s using single servers. A good viewing speed (>2Mbit/s) was observed in 32 of 37 countries (86%), compared to 25 of 37 (68%) using single servers. Our study shows that implementing a virtual microscopy network spanning a large geographical area is technically feasible. By utilizing existing academic networks and cost-minimizing image compression, it is also economically feasible.

Keywords

Virtual microscopyWhole-slide imagingNetworkInternetPathology

Supplementary material

428_2009_749_Fig1_ESM.gif (395 kb)
Fig. S1

Connection speed (average of top half, Mbit/s) by country. For each country the connection speed to the network as well as to each single server is shown. The effect of a server within a country is clearly seen as peaks in 4 countries (Finland, Netherlands, Poland and Sweden). The server in Spain had a 100 Mbit/s connection, with decreased top speeds, but nonetheless providing excellent connections speeds to web users (GIF 1.00 MB)

428_2009_749_Fig1_ESM.tiff.
High resolution image file (TIF 394 KB)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mikael Lundin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 12
  • Janusz Szymas
    • 3
  • Ewert Linder
    • 4
    • 5
  • Hans Beck
    • 6
  • Peter de Wilde
    • 6
  • Han van Krieken
    • 6
  • Marcial García Rojo
    • 7
  • Ignacio Moreno
    • 7
  • Aurelio Ariza
    • 8
  • Sitki Tuzlali
    • 9
  • Sergülen Dervişoğlu
    • 10
  • Heikki Helin
    • 11
  • Veli-Pekka Lehto
    • 11
  • Johan Lundin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical MedicineUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Folkhälsan Research CenterHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Department of Clinical PathologyUniversity of Medical SciencesPoznanPoland
  4. 4.Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI)SolnaSweden
  5. 5.Department of Microbiology, Tumor, and Cell Biology (MTC)Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  6. 6.Department of PathologyRadboud University Nijmegen Medical CenterNijmegenthe Netherlands
  7. 7.Pathology DepartmentHospital General de Ciudad RealCiudad RealSpain
  8. 8.Department of PathologyHospital Universitari Germans Trias i PujolBarcelonaSpain
  9. 9.Department of Pathology, Faculty of MedicineIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  10. 10.Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Pathology DepartmentIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  11. 11.Department of Pathology, Haartman InstituteUniversity of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, HUCH Laboratory DiagnosticsHelsinkiFinland
  12. 12.Clinical Research Institute HUCHHelsinkiFinland