, Volume 451, Issue 4, pp 757-762,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 03 Aug 2007

TNM staging of midgut and hindgut (neuro) endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system

Abstract

Criteria for the staging and grading of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of midgut and hindgut origin were established at the second Consensus Conference in Frascati (Rome) organized by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS). The proposed tumor–node–metastasis (TNM) classifications are based on the recently published ENETS Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of gastroenteropancreatic NETs and follow our previous proposal for foregut tumors. The new TNM classifications for NETs of the ileum, appendix, colon, and rectum, and the grading system were designed, discussed, and consensually approved by all conference participants. These proposals need to be validated and are meant to help clinicians in the stratification, treatment and follow-up of patients.