Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas): four malignant cases expanding the histopathological spectrum and a description of a unique finding
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- Weinreb, I., Howarth, D., Latta, E. et al. Virchows Arch (2007) 450: 463. doi:10.1007/s00428-007-0378-7
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Four cases of malignant PEComas were stained with smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, desmin, human melanoma black-45, melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor, S100 and cyclin D1. One case was studied by electron microscopy (EM). Tumour locations were the thigh, elbow, retroperitoneum and bladder in association with a urachal cyst. There were two men and two women; the average age was 51.3 years, and the size ranged from 5.0–23.0 cm. In three cases, 50–95% of the tumour was composed of pleomorphic sarcomatous areas. All cases had at least focal clear-cell areas. One case showed a continuous single layer of perivascular clear cells remote from the tumour, transitioning to invasive nests and to PEComa. EM demonstrated these cells in apposition to and in direct contact with the abluminal surface of the basal lamina of the capillaries. We suggest the term “pecosis” for these areas. All cases were positive for two or more melanocytic markers and for at least one actin. S100 and desmin were focally positive in one case. Cyclin D1 was positive in 3:4 cases. Four cases of malignant PEComa are described with the existence of a unique lesion (pecosis) in one case. These tumours may manifest largely as sarcomas appearing to be undifferentiated and should be considered in their differential diagnosis.