, Volume 445, Issue 2, pp 142-150
Date: 30 Jun 2004

Differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and other spindle cell tumors in the gastrointestinal tract based on immunohistochemical analysis

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To confirm the usefulness of an immunohistochemical panel of antibodies for KIT (c-kit/CD117), CD34, desmin, smooth-muscle actin (SMA), h-caldesmon (HCD), S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and beta-catenin, 297 mesenchymal and peripheral nerve-sheath tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and intra-abdominal locations including 211 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), 12 leiomyomas, 18 leiomyosarcomas, 17 solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs), 14 schwannomas, and 25 desmoid-type fibromatoses (DTFs) were analyzed immunohistochemically. Consistent (100%) immunoreactivity for KIT, CD34, desmin and S-100, and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin were detected in GISTs, SFTs, smooth-muscle tumors, schwannomas, and DTFs, respectively. Immunoreactivity for SMA, HCD, and NSE was observed in a wide range of these tumors. In addition, 418 bone and soft tissue tumors were enrolled in this study for KIT immunostaining. As a result, a limited number of these tumors were KIT positive, including synovial sarcoma that showed morphological similarity to GISTs. These findings suggest that KIT, CD34, desmin, S-100, and beta-catenin are key markers for clinical diagnosis of GISTs and other spindle cell tumors that may involve the gastrointestinal tract, whereas SMA, HCD, and NSE have only limited value.