, Volume 211, Issue 2, pp 96-102

Homeotic evidence for the appendicular origin of the labrum in Tribolium castaneum

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The ontogeny of the insect labrum, or upper lip, has been debated for nearly a century. Recent molecular data suggest a segmental appendage origin of this structure. Here we report the first arthropod mutation associated with a homeotic transformation of the labrum. Antennagalea-5 (Ag 5 ) transforms both antennal and labral structures to resemble those of gnathal appendages in Tribolium castaneum. This labral transformation suggests that the labrum is a fused structure composed of two pairs of appendage endites, and is serially homologous to the gnathal appendages.