Original Article

Development Genes and Evolution

, Volume 219, Issue 3, pp 131-145

The post-embryonic development of Remipedia (Crustacea)—additional results and new insights

  • Stefan KoenemannAffiliated withInstitute for Animal Ecology and Cell Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
  • , Jørgen OlesenAffiliated withNatural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen University
  • , Frederike AlwesAffiliated withInstitut für Biologie/Vergleichende Zoologie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
  • , Thomas M. IliffeAffiliated withDepartment of Marine Biology, Texas A&M University at Galveston
  • , Mario HoenemannAffiliated withInstitute for Animal Ecology and Cell Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover
  • , Petra UngererAffiliated withInstitut für Biologie/Vergleichende Zoologie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
  • , Carsten WolffAffiliated withInstitut für Biologie/Vergleichende Zoologie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
  • , Gerhard ScholtzAffiliated withInstitut für Biologie/Vergleichende Zoologie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Email author 

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Abstract

The post-embryonic development of a species of the enigmatic crustacean group Remipedia is described in detail for the first time under various aspects. Applying a molecular approach, we can clearly prove the species identity of the larvae as belonging to Pleomothra apletocheles. We document the cellular level of several larval stages and the differentiation of segments, limbs, and the general body morphology applying the techniques of confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we document the swimming behavior and the peculiar movements of the naupliar appendages. A comparison of our results with published data on other Crustacea and their larval development tentatively supports ideas about phylogenetic affinities of the Remipedia to the Malacostraca.

Keywords

Arthropod evolution Nauplius larva Anamorphic development Swimming behavior Limb formation