The post-embryonic development of Remipedia (Crustacea)—additional results and new insights

  • Stefan Koenemann
  • Jørgen Olesen
  • Frederike Alwes
  • Thomas M. Iliffe
  • Mario Hoenemann
  • Petra Ungerer
  • Carsten Wolff
  • Gerhard Scholtz
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00427-009-0273-0

Cite this article as:
Koenemann, S., Olesen, J., Alwes, F. et al. Dev Genes Evol (2009) 219: 131. doi:10.1007/s00427-009-0273-0

Abstract

The post-embryonic development of a species of the enigmatic crustacean group Remipedia is described in detail for the first time under various aspects. Applying a molecular approach, we can clearly prove the species identity of the larvae as belonging to Pleomothra apletocheles. We document the cellular level of several larval stages and the differentiation of segments, limbs, and the general body morphology applying the techniques of confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we document the swimming behavior and the peculiar movements of the naupliar appendages. A comparison of our results with published data on other Crustacea and their larval development tentatively supports ideas about phylogenetic affinities of the Remipedia to the Malacostraca.

Keywords

Arthropod evolutionNauplius larvaAnamorphic developmentSwimming behaviorLimb formation

Supplementary material

427_2009_273_MOESM1_ESM.mpg (7 mb)
ESM 1The movie shows the movements of the appendages of an orthonauplius (first part) and a metanauplius (second part) of the remipede crustacean P. apletocheles video-recorded in a Petri dish with cave water. Please note the impressive flexibility of the mandibles (third pair of appendages) (compare with Fig. 6). (MPG 7.02 MB).

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Koenemann
    • 1
  • Jørgen Olesen
    • 2
  • Frederike Alwes
    • 3
  • Thomas M. Iliffe
    • 4
  • Mario Hoenemann
    • 1
  • Petra Ungerer
    • 3
  • Carsten Wolff
    • 3
  • Gerhard Scholtz
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Animal Ecology and Cell BiologyUniversity of Veterinary Medicine HannoverHannoverGermany
  2. 2.Natural History Museum of DenmarkCopenhagen UniversityCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Institut für Biologie/Vergleichende ZoologieHumboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  4. 4.Department of Marine BiologyTexas A&M University at GalvestonGalvestonUSA