Planta

, Volume 232, Issue 6, pp 1309–1324

Over-expression of an FT-homologous gene of apple induces early flowering in annual and perennial plants

Authors

  • Conny Tränkner
    • Institute for Plant BreedingChristian-Albrechts-University of Kiel
  • Sandra Lehmann
    • Institute of BotanyLeibnitz University Hannover
  • Hans Hoenicka
    • Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and FisheriesInstitute for Forest Genetics
  • Magda-Viola Hanke
    • Julius Kühn-Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated PlantsInstitute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops
  • Matthias Fladung
    • Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and FisheriesInstitute for Forest Genetics
  • Denise Lenhardt
    • Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and FisheriesInstitute for Forest Genetics
  • Frank Dunemann
    • Julius Kühn-Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated PlantsInstitute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops
  • Achim Gau
    • Institute of BotanyLeibnitz University Hannover
  • Karin Schlangen
    • Genome Analysis Platform, CIC bioGUNETechnology Park of Bizkaia
  • Mickael Malnoy
    • Structural and Functional GenomicFoundation Edmunt Mach
    • Julius Kühn-Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated PlantsInstitute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit Crops
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00425-010-1254-2

Cite this article as:
Tränkner, C., Lehmann, S., Hoenicka, H. et al. Planta (2010) 232: 1309. doi:10.1007/s00425-010-1254-2

Abstract

The protein encoded by the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana seems to be the long-searched florigen, and over-expression of FT orthologues resulted in accelerated flower development in annual and perennial plants. In the present study, we isolated two allelic mRNA sequences of an FT-homologous gene from apple, which was designated as MdFT1. Using a SSR motif this gene was mapped on LG 12 of apple. Over-expression of MdFT1 in Arabidopsis and the commercially important tree species poplar and apple itself using the CaMV 35S or the Arabidopsis Suc2 promoter resulted in significant accelerated flowering compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic T0 plants of Arabidopsis flowered 4–6 days on average earlier than wild-type Arabidopsis under LD conditions. Under short-day conditions Suc2::MdFT1 plants of the T1-generation flowered after 66 ± 18 days, while wild-type plants flowered about 22 days later. All transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed a normal habit except for the early flowering phenotype. Early flowering was detected 6–10 months after transformation in transgenic polar clones containing MdFT1 driven by the CaMV 35S, whereas plants of the transgenic apple clone T780 set up its first flowers during in vitro cultivation. Based on our results we conclude that MdFT1 is responsible for inducing flowering and that the function of the apple FT1 gene is conserved in annual herbaceous species as well as perennial woody species. Furthermore, we discuss the role of MdFT1 in flower development with regard to the findings of genetic studies on apple.

Keywords

Apple (Malus × domestica)Early floweringFLOWERING LOCUS TMdFT1JuvenilityTransformation

Abbreviations

AFLP

Amplified fragment length polymorphism

AP1

APETALA1

CO

CONSTANS

COL

CONSTANS like

FT

FLOWERING LOCUS T

FUL

FRUITFULL

GFP

GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN

LD

Long day

LFY

LEAFY

LG

Linkage group

RNAPOLII

RNA POLYMERASE SUBUNIT II

SD

Short day

SEP3

SEPALLATA3

SOC1

SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1

SSR

Simple sequence repeat

Suc2

Arabidopsis sucrose-H+ symporter gene

TFL1

TERMINAL FLOWER 1

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 293 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (TIFF 316 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (TIFF 3469 kb)
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Supplementary material 4 (TIFF 606 kb)
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Supplementary material 5 (TIFF 967 kb)
425_2010_1254_MOESM6_ESM.doc (64 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (DOC 64 kb)
425_2010_1254_MOESM7_ESM.doc (38 kb)
Supplementary material 7 (DOC 38 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010