Planta

, Volume 232, Issue 4, pp 787–806

Chitooligosaccharide sensing and downstream signaling: contrasted outcomes in pathogenic and beneficial plant–microbe interactions

Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00425-010-1215-9

Cite this article as:
Hamel, LP. & Beaudoin, N. Planta (2010) 232: 787. doi:10.1007/s00425-010-1215-9

Abstract

In plants, short chitin oligosaccharides and chitosan fragments (collectively referred to as chitooligosaccharides) are well-known elicitors that trigger defense gene expression, synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, and cell wall strengthening. Recent findings have shed new light on chitin-sensing mechanisms and downstream activation of intracellular signaling networks that mediate plant defense responses. Interestingly, chitin receptors possess several lysin motif domains that are also found in several legume Nod factor receptors. Nod factors are chitin-related molecules produced by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia to induce root nodulation. The fact that chitin and Nod factor receptors share structural similarity suggests an evolutionary conserved relationship between mechanisms enabling recognition of both deleterious and beneficial microorganisms. Here, we will present an update on molecular events involved in chitooligosaccharide sensing and downstream signaling pathways in plants and will discuss how structurally related signals may lead to such contrasted outcomes during plant–microbe interactions.

Keywords

Chitin receptorDefense responseNod factor receptorChitooligosaccharideRhizobial symbiosisSignal perception and transduction

Abbreviations

CBP

Calcium-binding protein

CCaMK

Calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase

COS

Chitooligosaccharide

CRG

Chitin-responsive gene

DP

Degree of polymerization

EPS

Exopolysaccharide

ETI

Effector-triggered immunity

HR

Hypersensitive response

IT

Infection thread

KO

Knockout

LRR-RLK

Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

LysM

Lysin motif

LysM RLK or LYK

LysM domain-containing receptor-like kinase

MAMP

Microbial-associated molecular pattern

MTI

MAMP-triggered immunity

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

NF

Nod factor

PR

Pathogenesis-related protein

PGN

Peptidoglycan

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TF

Transcription factor

Supplementary material

425_2010_1215_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (4.9 mb)
(PDF 4986 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculté des Sciences, Département de BiologieUniversité de SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada