Original Article


, Volume 229, Issue 4, pp 977-986

First online:

Zinc tolerance and accumulation in stable cell suspension cultures and in vitro regenerated plants of the emerging model plant Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae)

  • Rosario Vera-EstrellaAffiliated withInstituto de Biotecnología, UNAM
  • , Maria Cristina Miranda-VergaraAffiliated withInstituto de Biotecnología, UNAM
  • , Bronwyn J. BarklaAffiliated withInstituto de Biotecnología, UNAM Email author 

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Arabidopsis halleri is increasingly employed as a model plant for studying heavy metal hyperaccumulation. With the aim of providing valuable tools for studies on cellular physiology and molecular biology of metal tolerance and transport, this study reports the development of successful and highly efficient methods for the in vitro regeneration of A. halleri plants and production of stable cell suspension lines. Plants were regenerated from leaf explants of A. halleri via a three-step procedure: callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and shoot development. Efficiency of callus proliferation and regeneration depended on the initial callus induction media and was optimal in the presence of 1 mg L−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 0.05 mg L−1 benzylaminopurine. Subsequent shoot and root regeneration from callus initiated under these conditions reached levels of 100% efficiency. High friability of the callus supported the development of cell suspension cultures with minimal cellular aggregates. Characterization of regenerated plants and cell cultures determined that they maintained not only the zinc tolerance and requirement of the whole plant but also the ability to accumulate zinc; with plants accumulating up to 50.0 μmoles zinc g−1 FW, and cell suspension cultures 30.9 μmoles zinc g−1 DW. Together this work will provide the experimental basis for furthering our knowledge of A. halleri as a model heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant.


Arabidopsis halleri Heavy metal hyperaccumulation Cell suspensions Zinc tolerance Plant regeneration