Original Article


, Volume 223, Issue 5, pp 910-916

First online:

Phytotoxic, clastogenic and bioaccumulation effects of the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A in various crops grown hydroponically

  • Giuseppe FerraraAffiliated withDipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali, University of Bari Email author 
  • , Elisabetta LoffredoAffiliated withDipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale, University of Bari
  • , Nicola SenesiAffiliated withDipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale, University of Bari

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The effects of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg l−1 were evaluated on the germination and morphology, micronuclei (MN) content in root tip cells and BPA bioaccumulation of hydroponic seedlings of broad bean (Vicia faba L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) after 6 and 21 days of growth. In general, BPA at any dose used did not inhibit germination and early growth (6 days) of seedlings of the species examined, with the exception of primary root length of tomato which decreased at the higher BPA dose. In contrast, an evident phytotoxicity was induced by BPA in all species after 21 days of growth with evident morphological anomalies and significant reductions of the lengths and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots of seedlings. With respect to the nutrient medium without seedlings, BPA concentration decreased markedly during the growth period in the presence of broad bean and tomato seedlings, and limitedly in the presence of durum wheat and, especially, lettuce. Further, the presence of BPA measured in roots and shoots of broad bean and tomato after 21-day growth indicated that bioaccumulation of BPA had occurred. The number of MN in broad bean and durum wheat root tip cells increased markedly by treatment with BPA at both concentrations, thus suggesting a potential clastogenic activity of BPA in these species.


Bisphenol A Growth effects Lactuca sativa Lycopersicon esculentum Triticum durum Vicia faba