Planta

, Volume 220, Issue 6, pp 900–909

(Z)-3-Hexenol induces defense genes and downstream metabolites in maize

  • Mohamed A. Farag
  • Mohamed Fokar
  • Haggag Abd
  • Huiming Zhang
  • Randy D. Allen
  • Paul W. Paré
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00425-004-1404-5

Cite this article as:
Farag, M.A., Fokar, M., Abd, H. et al. Planta (2005) 220: 900. doi:10.1007/s00425-004-1404-5

Abstract

In response to insect feeding, corn plants (Zea mays cv. Delprim) release elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including the C6-volatile (Z)-3-hexenol. The level of mRNA accumulation for a series of defense genes was monitored in response to application of (Z)-3-hexenol (50 nmol) to undamaged plants. The induction of transcripts for hpl (hydroperoxide lyase), fps (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase), pal (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), lox (lipoxygenase), igl (indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase) and mpi (maize proteinase inhibitor) were compared with metabolites generated from the respective pathways. While headspace VOC analysis showed an increase in (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and methyl salicylate with lox and pal induction, respectively, MPI accumulation was not observed with an increase in mpi transcripts. Moreover, (Z)-3-hexenol treatment did not elevate sesquiterpene emissions or activate fps transcription. Chemical labeling and bioassay experiments established that exogenous (Z)-3-hexenol can be taken up and converted to a less active acetylated form. These data indicate that (Z)-3-hexenol can serve as a signaling molecule that triggers defense responses in maize and can rapidly be turned over in planta.

Keywords

C6-volatiles(Z)-3-HexenolMethyl jasmonateTerpenesVolatile organic compoundsZea

Abbreviations

BAW

Beet armyworm

FPS

Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase

GAP C

Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, cytosolic form

HMGR

Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase

HPL

Hydroperoxide lyase

IGL

Indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase

LOX

Lipoxygenase

MeJA

Methyl jasmonate

MeSA

Methyl salicylate

MPI

Maize proteinase inhibitor

PAL

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase

VOC

Volatile organic compound

Supplementary material

supp.pdf (25 kb)
(PDF 25 KB)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed A. Farag
    • 1
  • Mohamed Fokar
    • 2
  • Haggag Abd
    • 2
  • Huiming Zhang
    • 1
  • Randy D. Allen
    • 2
  • Paul W. Paré
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry & BiochemistryTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA