Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology

, Volume 459, Issue 4, pp 557–567

Genetically modified mice—successes and failures of a widely used technology

Molecular and Genomic Physiology

DOI: 10.1007/s00424-009-0770-z

Cite this article as:
Castrop, H. Pflugers Arch - Eur J Physiol (2010) 459: 557. doi:10.1007/s00424-009-0770-z


Genetically modified mice, created by random integration of a transgene into the genome or by targeted mutation of a specific gene, have proven to be extremely powerful tools for studying gene function in vivo. In this article, we give (1) a short overview of the traditional methods in mouse transgenesis and (2) a discussion of the problems with these methods, (3) more recent methods that were developed to overcome these problems, and (4) an outlook on future directions in gene targeting.


Transgenic mouseRNA editingGene expressionPhenotypeEmbryo

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PhysiologyUniversity of RegensburgRegensburgGermany