Molecular and Genomic Physiology

Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology

, Volume 459, Issue 4, pp 557-567

Genetically modified mice—successes and failures of a widely used technology

  • Hayo CastropAffiliated withInstitute of Physiology, University of Regensburg Email author 

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Genetically modified mice, created by random integration of a transgene into the genome or by targeted mutation of a specific gene, have proven to be extremely powerful tools for studying gene function in vivo. In this article, we give (1) a short overview of the traditional methods in mouse transgenesis and (2) a discussion of the problems with these methods, (3) more recent methods that were developed to overcome these problems, and (4) an outlook on future directions in gene targeting.


Transgenic mouse RNA editing Gene expression Phenotype Embryo