Genetically modified mice—successes and failures of a widely used technology
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- Castrop, H. Pflugers Arch - Eur J Physiol (2010) 459: 557. doi:10.1007/s00424-009-0770-z
Genetically modified mice, created by random integration of a transgene into the genome or by targeted mutation of a specific gene, have proven to be extremely powerful tools for studying gene function in vivo. In this article, we give (1) a short overview of the traditional methods in mouse transgenesis and (2) a discussion of the problems with these methods, (3) more recent methods that were developed to overcome these problems, and (4) an outlook on future directions in gene targeting.