, Volume 398, Issue 4, pp 501-514,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 22 Feb 2013

Navigation in surgery



“Navigation in surgery” spans a broad area, which, depending on the clinical challenge, can have different meanings. Over the past decade, navigation in surgery has evolved beyond imaging modalities and bulky systems into the rich networking of the cloud or devices that are pocket-sized.


This article will review various aspects of navigation in the operating room and beyond. This includes a short history of navigation, the evolution of surgical navigation, as well as technical aspects and clinical benefits with examples from neurosurgery, spinal surgery, and orthopedics.


With improved computer technology and a trend towards advanced information processing within hospitals, navigation is quickly becoming an integral part in the surgical routine of clinicians.

Uli Mezger and Claudia Jendrewski equally contributed to the article.