Original Article

Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery

, Volume 398, Issue 1, pp 161-167

First online:

Plasma clots gelled by different amounts of calcium for stem cell delivery

  • Jan GessmannAffiliated withDepartment of General and Trauma Surgery, BG University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Ruhr University Bochum Email author 
  • , Dominik SeyboldAffiliated withDepartment of General and Trauma Surgery, BG University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Ruhr University Bochum
  • , Elvira PeterAffiliated withDepartment of Surgical Research, BG University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Ruhr University Bochum
  • , Thomas Armin SchildhauerAffiliated withDepartment of General and Trauma Surgery, BG University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Ruhr University Bochum
  • , Manfred KöllerAffiliated withDepartment of Surgical Research, BG University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Ruhr University Bochum

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Abstract

Purpose

Freshly prepared autologous plasma clots may serve as a carrier matrix for expanded multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or bone marrow cells. By varying the calcium concentration, plasma clots with different properties can be produced. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the optimal calcium concentrations for the clotting process, intra-clot cell viability, and clot lysis.

Methods

Different plasma clots were prepared by adding an equal volume of RPMI1640 (with or without MSCs) to citrate plasma (either containing platelets or platelet-free). Clotting was initiated by the addition of CaCl2 (10 g/100 ml H2O, 10 % solution). The final concentration of CaCl2 ranged from 1 to 10 % by volume of plasma. Viability and distribution of the MSCs were analysed by calcein-AM/propidium iodide staining. MSC-embedded plasma clots were dissolved with trypsin (0.25 %), and recovered cells were further incubated for 1 week under cell culture conditions.

Results

The viability of MSCs embedded in clots formed by the addition of 1–8 % by volume CaCl2 was not affected by incubation of up to 1 week. In contrast, clots produced by higher volumes of CaCl2 solutions (9–10 % by volume of plasma) showed decreased numbers of viable cells. Intra-clot cell proliferation was highest in clots produced by addition of 5 % CaCl2 by plasma volume. Osteocalcin release was not influenced in platelet-free plasma but decreased in platelet-containing plasma. Morphological analysis of stained recovered MSCs revealed that lysis of the plasma clot did not affect cell morphology or subsequent spontaneous proliferation.

Conclusions

Clot formation and clot stability can be controlled by changing the concentration of CaCl2 added to plasma. The addition of 5 % CaCl2 produced a plasma clot with optimal results for stem cell delivery.

Keywords

Mesenchymal stromal cells Plasma clot Tissue engineering Fracture healing Bone regeneration