PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/carcinoma (IPMN/C) of the pancreas
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- Schönleben, F., Qiu, W., Remotti, H.E. et al. Langenbecks Arch Surg (2008) 393: 289. doi:10.1007/s00423-008-0285-7
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Background and aims
Recent studies have reported high frequencies of somatic mutations in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic-α (PIK3CA) gene in various human tumors. Three hot-spot mutations in the exons 9 and 20 have been proven to activate the Akt signalling pathway. The Raf/MEK/ERK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal transduction is an important mediator of a number of cellular fates including growth, proliferation, and survival. The BRAF gene is activated by oncogenic RAS, leading to cooperative effects in cells responding to growth factor signals. Here we evaluate the mutational status of PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/carcinoma (IPMN/IPMNC) of the pancreas.
Materials and methods
Exons 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 18, and 20 of PIK3CA, exons 1 of KRAS, and exons 5, 11, and 15 of BRAF were analyzed in 36 IPMN/IPMC and two mucinous cystadenoma specimens by direct genomic DNA sequencing.
We identified four somatic missense mutations of PIK3CA within the 36 IPMN/IPMC specimens (11%). One of the four mutations, H1047R, has been previously reported to be a hot-spot mutation. Furthermore, we found 17 (47%) KRAS mutations in exon 1 and one missense mutation (2.7%) in exon 15 of BRAF.
This data is the first report of PIK3CA mutation in pancreatic cancer and it appears to be the first oncogene to be mutated in IPMN/IPMC but not in conventional ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Our data provide evidence that PIK3CA and BRAF contribute to the tumorigenesis of IPMN/IPMC, but at a lower frequency than KRAS.