European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 117, Issue 3, pp 431–440

Sex differences in the response of total PYY and GLP-1 to moderate-intensity continuous and sprint interval cycling exercise

  • Tom J. Hazell
  • Logan K. Townsend
  • Jillian R. Hallworth
  • Jon Doan
  • Jennifer L. Copeland
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00421-017-3547-7

Cite this article as:
Hazell, T.J., Townsend, L.K., Hallworth, J.R. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2017) 117: 431. doi:10.1007/s00421-017-3547-7

Abstract

Background

Exercise interventions are often less effective at improving body composition for females than males, potentially due to post-exercise hormonal responses that increase energy intake in females. Recently, sprint interval training was shown to effectively reduce body fat in females despite being relatively low during exercise energy expenditure.

Purpose

To determine whether any sex difference in total PYY, GLP-1 or perceived hunger exists following moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICT) and sprint interval exercise (SIT)

Methods

Twenty-one active participants (11 females) participated in three sessions in a randomized crossover design: (1) MICT, 30-min cycling at 65% VO2max; (2) SIT, 6 × 30 s “all-out” sprints with 4-min recovery periods; (3) control (CTRL; no exercise). Blood samples were collected pre-exercise, immediately and 90 min post-exercise for the measurement of total PYY and GLP-1. Subjective perceptions of hunger were assessed using a visual analogue scale pre-breakfast and before all blood samples.

Results

Concentrations of total PYY and GLP-1 were greater during MICT (P = 0.05) and SIT (P = 0.005) compared to CTRL. Total PYY increased more immediately post-exercise in males than females (P = 0.030). GLP-1 only increased in females following MICT (P = 0.034) and SIT (P = 0.024) compared to CTRL. Perceived hunger was lower immediately post-MICT (P = 0.016) and SIT (P = 0.006) compared to CTRL.

Conclusions

These results suggest that total PYY and GLP-1 respond differently to exercise in males and females over 90 min following various exercise intensities. The observed post-exercise hormonal response would not be expected to create a compensatory increase in energy intake in females.

Keywords

Appetite regulation Anorexigenic Satiety High-intensity interval training Aerobic exercise 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

AUC

Area under the curve

BMI

Body mass index

CTRL

Control

CV

Coefficient of variation

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

GLP-1

Glucagon-like peptide-1

HIIT

High-intensity interval training

HR

Heart rate

MICT

Moderate-intensity continuous training

PYY

Peptide tyrosine tyrosine

RER

Respiratory exchange ratio

SD

Standard deviation

SIT

Sprint interval training

VAS

Visual analogue scale

VO2

Oxygen consumption

VO2max

Maximal oxygen uptake

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Kinesiology and Physical EducationWilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Department of Kinesiology and Physical EducationUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada