Changes in body composition in triathletes during an Ironman race
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- Mueller, S.M., Anliker, E., Knechtle, P. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2013) 113: 2343. doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2670-3
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Triathletes lose body mass during an Ironman triathlon. However, the associated body composition changes remain enigmatic. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate Ironman-induced changes in segmental body composition, using for the first time dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT).
Before and after an Ironman triathlon, segmental body composition and lower leg tissue mass, areas and densities were assessed using DXA and pQCT, respectively, in eight non-professional male triathletes. In addition, blood and urine samples were collected for the determination of hydration status.
Body mass decreased by 1.9 ± 0.8 kg. This loss was due to 0.4 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.8 kg decrease in fat and lean mass, respectively (P < 0.01). Calf muscle density was reduced by 1.93 ± 1.04 % (P < 0.01). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma [K+] remained unchanged, while plasma [Na+] (P < 0.05), urine specific gravity and plasma and urine osmolality increased (P < 0.01).
The loss in lean mass was explained by a decrease in muscle density, as an indicator of glycogen loss, and increases in several indicators for dehydration. The measurement of body composition with DXA and pQCT before and after an Ironman triathlon provided exact values for the loss in fat and lean mass. Consequently, these results yielded more detailed insights into tissue catabolism during ultra-endurance exercise.
KeywordsDual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)GlycogenDehydration
Total muscle cross-sectional area
Total fat cross-sectional area
Bioelectrical impedance analysis
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
Muscle protein breakdown
Muscle protein synthesis
Peripheral quantitative computed tomography
Region of interest
Volumetric bone mineral content