European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 8, pp 2133–2142

Effect of range of motion in heavy load squatting on muscle and tendon adaptations

  • K. Bloomquist
  • H. Langberg
  • S. Karlsen
  • S. Madsgaard
  • M. Boesen
  • T. Raastad
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00421-013-2642-7

Cite this article as:
Bloomquist, K., Langberg, H., Karlsen, S. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2013) 113: 2133. doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2642-7

Abstract

Manipulating joint range of motion during squat training may have differential effects on adaptations to strength training with implications for sports and rehabilitation. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of squat training with a short vs. a long range of motion. Male students (n = 17) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of progressive squat training (repetition matched, repetition maximum sets) performed as either a) deep squat (0–120° of knee flexion); n = 8 (DS) or (b) shallow squat (0–60  of knee flexion); n = 9 (SS). Strength (1 RM and isometric strength), jump performance, muscle architecture and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscles, as well as CSA and collagen synthesis in the patellar tendon, were assessed before and after the intervention. The DS group increased 1 RM in both the SS and DS with ~20 ± 3 %, while the SS group achieved a 36 ± 4 % increase in the SS, and 9 ± 2 % in the DS (P < 0.05). However, the main finding was that DS training resulted in superior increases in front thigh muscle CSA (4–7 %) compared to SS training, whereas no differences were observed in patellar tendon CSA. In parallel with the larger increase in front thigh muscle CSA, a superior increase in isometric knee extension strength at 75° (6 ± 2 %) and 105° (8 ± 1 %) knee flexion, and squat-jump performance (15 ± 3 %) were observed in the DS group compared to the SS group. Training deep squats elicited favourable adaptations on knee extensor muscle size and function compared to training shallow squats.

Keywords

Resistance training Hypertrophy Patellar tendon Jumping performance 

Abbreviations

CV

Coefficient of variation

CJ

Counter movement jump

CSA

Cross-sectional area

DS

Deep squat

DEXA

Dual energy X-ray absorption

LBM

Lean body mass

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

r

Pearson correlation coefficient

PINP

Procollagen type 1 N-propeptide

RM

Repetition maximum

SEC

Series elastic component

SS

Shallow squat

SJ

Squat jump

SD

Standard deviation

SE

Standard error

SSC

Stretch shortening cycle

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Bloomquist
    • 3
  • H. Langberg
    • 2
  • S. Karlsen
    • 1
  • S. Madsgaard
    • 1
  • M. Boesen
    • 4
  • T. Raastad
    • 1
  1. 1.Norwegian School of Sport SciencesOsloNorway
  2. 2.CopenRehab, Institute of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Centre for Healthy Ageing, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.The University Hospitals Centre for Health ResearchCopenhagen University HospitalCopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.Sportsmedicine and surgeryParkens private hospitalCopenhagenDenmark